Vigilance needed in treating Leprosy patients in accordance with WHO's AWaRe - A Systematic Review.
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a highly stigmatized disease that can range from a minor skin lesion to life-threatening conditions such as deformities and disability. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a tool called "Access, Watch, and Reserve" (AWaRe) to reduce antibiotic misuse and abuse.
Aim: The purpose of this review is to determine whether the drugs used in the leprosy treatment regimen are complied with the AWaRe programme, in order to improve the quality of hospital antibiotic use and reduce the incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
Methods: We started by looking for antibiotics that are used in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of leprosy, as defined by the WHO's AWaRe classification. Furthermore, we look for studies on antibiotics that showed sensitivity or less resistance after antimicrobial sensitivity testing (AST) on isolates from infected leprosy ulcers, as well as their AWaRe category.
Results: There were 32 studies found, but only 5 of them met the inclusion criteria. They consisted of four cross-sectional studies and one descriptive retrospective study. A total of 19 antibiotics were identified in 5 studies, with 9 (47.4 %) antibiotics in the access category, 8 (42.1 %) antibiotics in the watch group, and 2 (10.5 %) antibiotics in the reserve group.
Conclusion: As per our knowledge, this is the first study to explore antibiotics in leprosy treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and complications such as ulcer compliance with the AWaRe programme. Antimicrobial resistance is on the rise, which is a global issue that continues to pose challenges to clinical practices. This review may provide physicians with an overview of the current state of drug prescribing trends in leprosy, whether in accordance with the AWaRe classification in selecting the right drug when the use of antimicrobials is indicated and may also aid in rational drug prescribing.