BCG has been the only vaccine available for a long time that provides some protection against leprosy disease. It is a live vaccine that has been developed as immune-prophylaxis for Tuberculosis. A renewed effort to develop leprosy vaccines has been made in the 1990s. Two inactivated vaccines for M. leprae are now advancing: MIP, a whole-cell vaccine of heat-killed mycobacteria (M. pranii, [previously known as M. w); and LepVax, a multi-valent recombinant protein formulated in a modern adjuvant. The latter contains a modern adjuvant that has been used in more than a dozen vaccine candidates and is a safe and effective inducer of durable T-cell responses. Both vaccines are also used in studies to evaluate their effect on neurological function. The MIP vaccine candidate is being further studied in India, and the LepVax candidate will enter into Phase 2 evaluations in Brazil in 2019. It is crucial to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of the three available vaccines.
Below you will find an overview of recent scientific publications about interventions to reduce transmission of leprosy (Including BCG and novel vaccines, for both pre- and post-exposure).