Serological Antibody Profile IgM and IgG of Mycobacterium leprae PGL-1 and L-ESAT-6 in Patients and Household Contact from Leprosy Endemic Area in East Java Indonesia
Leprosy patients in Indonesia is the third largest in the world. The problem of high transmission is the difficulty of early detection of leprosy. At present, diagnosis leprosy still based on clinical sign. Some of supporting diagnostic tools are developed, such as serological test. The most widely used antigen for diagnostics is Phenolic-glycolipid-1(PGL-1), but some limitations of the antigen, provide a challenge to find a potential candidate antigen representing specific Mycobacterium leprae. Purpose of this research is for studying Mycobacterium leprae L-ESAT-6 (epitope AA11-36) compare to PGL-1 to leprosy patients and household contacts in leprosy endemic region. Analysis have been conducted to MB and PB leprosy patients, as well as their families with total 173 respondents by testing Indirect ELISA of the L-ESAT-6 and PGL-1. In general, the profile of ELISA test anti PGL-1 vs L-ESAT-6 in all the patients don’t have significant difference, but in household contacts, with the Pearson correlation test, it can be concluded that there are significant difference between PGL-1 and L-ESAT-6 (p-value = 0.049; p <α = 0.05). Healthy individuals who are exposed to M.leprae found high titers of antibody anti L-ESAT-6 and lower profile of antibody anti PGL-1. It is assumed that the individual is relatively immune to M.leprae. So it can be concluded that L-ESAT-6 (AA11- 36) can be used as candidate diagnostic test which is a predictor marker for people living in endemic leprosy areas, for it still need a further research.