Opportunistic tropical infections in immunosuppressed patients.
Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases are associated with severe morbidity, and represent an impactful health and economic burden worldwide. The treatment of these diseases can include a course with detrimental side effects. Immunosuppression increases the risk of opportunistic infections, but in some cases, the abrupt discontinuation of these medications can result in immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Special attention must be directed to endemic tropical infections, such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, malaria, arbovirosis, yellow fever, leprosy, paracoccidioidomycosis, disseminated strongyloidiasis, and ectoparasitosis. These endemic diseases of developing countries can be considered as possible emerging diseases in developed regions partially because of environmental factors and migration. In the present article, we aim to review the evidence-based aspects of the most important opportunistic tropical infections in immunosuppressed patients. We also aim to review the important aspects of vaccination, chemical prophylaxis, and treatment for these infections in people with medication-induced immunosuppression.