[Lung mycobacteriosis--clinical presentation, diagnostics and treatment].
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of bacteria that may cause human disease mycobacteriosis, but do not cause tuberculosis or leprosy. NTM are acquired through environmental exposure to water, aerosols, soil, dust and are transferred to humans through inhalation, ingestion, and skin lesions, due to injuries, surgical procedures, or intravenous catheters. People with suppressed immune response, with pre-existing lung damage in the course of various lung diseases are most likely to be affected. There is no evidence of person-to-person spread of these diseases. A variety of manifestations of NTM infection have been described, but the lungs remain the most commonly involved site. Molecular methods allow the quicker differentiation of NTM from TB isolates and help to identify new NTM species. The purpose of this article is to review the common clinical manifestations of NTM lung disease, the conditions associated with NTM lung disease, diagnostic criteria and treatment of the most frequent species of NTM.