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Leprosy surveillance study in a highly endemic Brazilian area using leprosy specific serologic tests and IFNγ whole blood assay.

Abstract

This surveillance study evaluated leprosy-serologic tests and the IFNγ whole-blood-assay/WBA as adjunct diagnostic tools. Previously diagnosed leprosy index cases, intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary contacts from a Brazilian endemic area were enrolled during domiciliary visits. Physical evaluation was performed by trained nurses and leprosy diagnosis confirmed by expert dermatologist. ELISA detected IgM anti-PGL-I, IgG anti-LID-1, and IgM/IgG anti-ND-O-LID antibodies. Heparinized WBA plasma stimulated with LID-1, 46f + LID-1, ML0276 + LID-1 (24 h, 37 °C, 5% CO was tested for human IFNγ (QuantiFERON®-TB Gold/QFT-G; Qiagen). The survey included 1731 participants: 44 leprosy index cases, 64 intradomiciliary, 1623 peridomiciliary contacts. Women represented 57.7%, median age was 32 years, 72.2% had BCG scar. Leprosy prevalence was higher in intradomiciliary (8.57%) versus peridomiciliary contacts (0.67%), p < 0.001. Among 23 suspects, five leprosy cases were confirmed: 4 multibacillary/MB and 1 paucibacillary/PB. Leprosy incidence was 0.30%: 1.56% in intradomiciliary versus 0.25% in peridomiciliary (p = 0.028). Seropositivity rates were 1.9% to PGL-I, 4.9% to LID-1, and 1.0% to ND-O-LID. LID-1 positivity was higher in all groups; incident cases were LID-1 seropositive. ND-O-LID positivity was higher in intra- versus peridomiciliary contacts (p = 0.022). IFNγ WBA (40 index cases, 19 suspects, 35 intradomiciliary, 74 peridomiciliary contacts) showed higher LID-1/WBA positivity in peridomiciliary contacts (p > 0.05); significant differences among groups were seen with 46f + LID-1 but 0276 + LID-1 induced higher IFNγ levels. Incident cases were LID-1 seropositive, while IFNγ-WBA had marginal diagnostic application. As seropositivity indicates exposed individuals at higher risk of disease development, the utility of serologic screening for surveillance and prophylactic measures remains to be demonstrated.

More information

Type
Journal Article
Author
Gonçalves A
Hungria E
Freitas A
Sékula-Bührer S
Gomes C
Coelho A
Nascimento L
Stefani M
Year of Publication
2020
Journal
European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology
Date Published
07/2020
Language
eng
ISSN Number
1435-4373
DOI
10.1007/s10096-020-03979-5
Alternate Journal
Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PMID
32666479
Publication Language
eng