Increscent journey of anti-leprosy drug development.
Leprosy, a chronic granulomatous disease generally caused by Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis, remains a serious public health concern, particularly in developing countries. With the introduction of multi-drug therapy (MDT) by the World Health Organization in 1980, the prevalence of leprosy has declined globally. In the past, acid-fast bacilli frequently developed resistance to both first-line (dapsone, rifampicin and clofazimine) and second-line drugs (fluoroquinolones, minocycline and clarithromycin). According to previous research, it is reported that genes like rpoB, gyrA and folP play a role in drug resistance. Considering its exceptionally modest pace of growth, it is challenging to cultivate M. leprae in a laboratory environment on a synthetic medium. Thus, studies on animal models have assisted in evaluating anti-leprosy drugs and documentation of drug-resistant strains, as well as other basic immunological investigations examining the efficacy of vaccinations. In addition to the conventionally administered MDT treatments, several newly developed drugs have shown more impressive results, along with combinational therapies of moxifloxacin-based regimens, having much better efficacy. This review focuses on the increscent journey of anti-leprosy drugs to treat the disease and highlights the relevance of animal models in the research and development of anti-leprosy drugs