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The impact of KIR/HLA genes on the risk of developing multibacillary leprosy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a group of regulatory molecules able to activate or inhibit natural killer cells upon interaction with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules. Combinations of KIR and HLA may contribute to the occurrence of different immunological and clinical responses to infectious diseases. Leprosy is a chronic neglected disease, both disabling and disfiguring, caused mainly by Mycobacterium leprae. In this case-control study, we examined the influence of KIRs and HLA ligands on the development of multibacillary leprosy.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genotyping of KIR and HLA genes was performed in 264 multibacillary leprosy patients and 518 healthy unrelated controls (238 healthy household contacts and 280 healthy subjects). These are unprecedented results in which KIR2DL2/KIR2DL2/C1/C2 and KIR2DL3/2DL3/C1/C1 indicated a risk for developing lepromatous and borderline leprosy, respectively. Concerning to 3DL2/A3/A11+, our study demonstrated that independent of control group (contacts or healthy subjects), this KIR receptor and its ligand act as a risk factor for the borderline clinical form.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding suggests that synergetic associations of activating and inhibitory KIR genes may alter the balance between these receptors and thus interfere in the progression of multibacillary leprosy.

More information

Type
Journal Article
Author
Alves HV
Moraes AG
Pepineli AC
Tiyo BT
Neto QAL
Santos TS
Teixeira JJV
Ambrosio-Albuquerque EP
Sell AM
Visentainer JEL
Year of Publication
2019
Journal
PLoS neglected tropical diseases
Volume
13
Issue
9
Number of Pages
e0007696
Language
eng
ISSN Number
1935-2735
DOI
10.1371/journal.pntd.0007696
Alternate Journal
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
Publication Language
eng