Immunomodulatory effect of various anti-parasitics: a review.
This paper reviews the immunomodulatory effects (immunosuppression or immunoactivation) of various anthelmintics including levamisole, fenvalerate, dieldrin, carbofuran, aminocarb, thiabendazole, fenbendazole, oxfendazole and ivermectin. The induced modulation of immune function may occur via direct and/or indirect mechanisms. The immunomodulatory effects of these anti-parasitics have been studied in a variety of bacterial (e.g. brucellosis, salmonellosis, paratuberculosis, mastitis), viral (e.g. infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Herpes, foot and mouth disease), parasitic (e.g. onchocerciasis, coccidiosis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis) and neoplastic diseases. Some antiparasitics have also been used to boost immunity in a number of human diseases including leprosy, Hodgkin's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and in adjuvanted therapy of colorectal cancer. The ability to stimulate the immune response of animals offers a new means of disease intervention. Future research on immunomodulatory effects of anti-parasitics, for humans and domestic farm animals, will provide additional methods of treating immunosuppressed subjects. The immunopotentiating or immunosuppressing activity of anti-parasitics will dictate whether co-administration of vaccines and anthelmintics or administration of vaccines during the window of immunoactivation is justified or not.