A Histopathological Study of the Spectrum of Skin Lesions in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Retrospective Study
Background: The skin is the largest organ of the body with many different functions. All age groups are affected by skin diseases, which are widespread in underdeveloped nations. From a straightforward vesicular non-neoplastic lesion to a catastrophic neoplastic lesion, skin disorders exhibit a wide variety of geographic patterns. To make an accurate diagnosis, identify etiological agents, and assist a dermatologist or clinician in selecting the best course of treatment, a skin biopsy must undergo histopathological analysis. The present study was conducted to investigate the histological diagnosis of skin lesions, establish the distribution by age and sex, identify the most prevalent skin lesions, and further subclassify the most prevalent condition.
Methodology: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pathology at Datta Meghe Medical College, Wanadongari, Nagpur over the course of a year. Hematoxylin and eosin were used to stain a total of 50 skin biopsy samples, with special stain when necessary, and then examined.
Results: The study involved a total of 50 patients, with 39 (78%) males and 11 (22%) females. With 16 (32%) cases in the 21-30-year age group, the early age group preponderance was recorded. Overall, 16 (32%) cases had microbial diseases, followed by eight (16%) cases with non-infectious vesicobullous diseases and vesicopustular disease, and five (10%) cases with non-infectious erythematous papular and squamous disease. In 12 (24%) cases, leprosy was the most prevalent microbiological disease. In five (10%) cases, pemphigus vulgaris was the most prevalent vesicobullous condition. Psoriasis, which was present in two (4%) cases, was the most common non-infectious erythematous papular and squamous disease. Squamous cell carcinoma, which was seen in seven (14%) cases, was the most prevalent neoplastic lesion.
Conclusions: In skin lesions, males outnumbered females. Patients in the younger age groups were most commonly involved. Leprosy and squamous cell carcinoma were, respectively, the most prevalent non-neoplastic and neoplastic skin lesions in our study.