Histopathological Study of Skin Lesions in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study
Skin is the largest sensory organ of the body and acts as a barrier against various harmful environmental agents. Dermatologic disorders are common in all countries but the spectrum varies greatly. The spectrum varies according to geographic distribution, gender, age, and coexisting disorder. We conducted this study to find out prevalence of various skin diseases, site of distribution, frequency of various skin diseases and gender preponderance of diseases. Material and Method: A descriptive retrospective, cross-sectional study was done in the Pathology Department of PDU Medical College, Rajkot, Gujarat, from December 2021 to November 2022 (1 year). The biopsies taken were fixed in 10% formalin and then processed and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin stain (H&E). A convenience sampling method was used. Data was collected, point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data and systemic random sampling was used to achieve sample size. Results: In our one-year study, total 130 biopsies were studied. Males were more affected than females. Most common affected age group was 31-40 years of age. Out of 130 skin biopsies, 117 (90%) were non-neoplastic and 10 (7.8%) were pre-malignant and neoplastic. Histopathological diagnosis was inconclusive in 3 (2.31%) cases. The most common non-neoplastic histopathological pattern observed in our study was infectious diseases comprising of 46 (35.4%) cases In Infectious diseases Leprosy was leading cause especially Lepromatous Leprosy. Trunk and abdomen (40.80%) were most common site of involvement in skin lesions. Conclusions: Infectious diseases especially Leprosy is still a common cause of skin diseases in developing country like India and strong intervention should be taken for it’s prevention. Histopathological examination is the gold standard for the proper diagnosis as histomorphological features distinguish various skin lesions which are having overlapping clinical features.