Evaluation of histopathological changes in Hansen's disease spectrum: A cross-sectional study from central India
Background: Hansen's disease is still considered to be a severe threat to the health of people all over the globe, particularly in developing nations such as India. Due to the lengthy incubation period of Hansen's illness, the excessive reliance on clinical competence, and the absence of a quick and easy diagnostic instrument, patients who are afflicted with the condition might be misdiagnosed for an extended period of time.
Aim: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the histopathological alterations that occur throughout the range of Hansen's disease.
Material and methods: A cross-sectional observational study including all newly diagnosed instances of Hansen's disease over a duration of one year,that had a clinical suspicion associated with them were included in the research. After receiving the institutional ethics approvaland written informed consent of the patient, a comprehensive clinical history and examination was done. After which skin biopsy samples were obtained from the most active portion of the lesion and sent for histopathological evaluation.
Results: A total of 35 patients were studied with age group ranging between 27 to 72 years. Out of 35 patients, 19 were males and 16 were females with male to female ratio being 1.88:1. Histopathologically, borderline lepromatous was the commonest (48.57%) followed by borderline tuberculoid (25.71%). On histopathological assessment, the most common epidermal change observed was atrophy and flattened rete ridges (60%) and was found most commonly in borderline lepromatous type. The commonest dermal change was peri appendageal lympho-histiocytes (45.71%) and was found most frequently in borderline lepromatous followed by borderline tuberculoid. The common inflammatory infiltrates were foamy histiocytes (51.43%), found frequently in borderline lepromatous Hansen’s disease.
Conclusion: We concluded that the detailed histopathological evaluation of Hansen’s disease spectrum mark decisive role to identify stages of disease activity and ongoing shifts in various forms and toformulate the first line management.