Drug Resistance (Dapsone, Rifampicin, Ofloxacin) and Resistance-Related Gene Mutation Features in Leprosy Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Dapsone (DDS), Rifampicin (RIF) and Ofloxacin (OFL) are drugs recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the treatment of leprosy. In the context of leprosy, resistance to these drugs occurs mainly due to mutations in the target genes (Folp1, RpoB and GyrA). It is important to monitor antimicrobial resistance in patients with leprosy. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae and the mutational profile of the target genes. In this paper, we limited the study period to May 2022 and searched PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, and Embase databases for identified studies. Two independent reviewers extracted the study data. Mutation and drug-resistance rates were estimated in Stata 16.0. The results demonstrated that the drug-resistance rate was 10.18% (95% CI: 7.85-12.51). Subgroup analysis showed the highest resistance rate was in the Western Pacific region (17.05%, 95% CI:1.80 to 13.78), and it was higher after 2009 than before [(11.39%, 7.46-15.33) vs. 6.59% (3.66-9.53)]. We can conclude that the rate among new cases (7.25%, 95% CI: 4.65-9.84) was lower than the relapsed (14.26%, 95 CI%: 9.82-18.71). Mutation rates of Folp1, RpoB and GyrA were 4.40% (95% CI: 3.02-5.77), 3.66% (95% CI: 2.41-4.90) and 1.28% (95% CI: 0.87-1.71) respectively, while the rate for polygenes mutation was 1.73% (0.83-2.63). For further analysis, we used 368 drug-resistant strains as research subjects and found that codons (Ser, Pro, Ala) on RpoB, Folp1 and GyrA are the most common mutation sites in the determining region (DRDR). In addition, the most common substitution patterns of Folp1, RpoB, and GyrA are Pro→Leu, Ser→Leu, and Ala→Val. This study found that a higher proportion of patients has developed resistance to these drugs, and the rate has increased since 2009, which continue to pose a challenge to clinicians. In addition, the amino acid alterations in the sequence of the DRDR regions and the substitution patterns mentioned in the study also provide new ideas for clinical treatment options.