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Current Therapeutic Strategies for the Management of Leprosy


The chronic infectious condition known as leprosy is brought on by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. Peripheral nerves and the skin are frequently attacked, which can result in impairments. The incidence of M. leprae infection has decreased in endemic countries as a result of the WHO's multidrug therapy (MDT) program for leprosy treatment, but there is still active transmission as evidenced by the high rate of newly reported cases. It is critical to diagnose leprosy as early as possible, hence clinical examination and research are required. Leprosy has six subgroups, according to the Ridley-Jopling classification: Tuberculoid (TT), Borderline Tuberculoid (BT), Borderline-borderline Mid-borderline (BB), Borderline-lepromatous (BL), Subpolar Lepromatous (LLs), and Polar Lepromatous (LLp). Based on the type of therapy, leprosy is categorised into paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary subtypes (MB). Skin scraping smears are still the preferred laboratory test for leprosy diagnosis. Depending on the type of leprosy, whether it belongs to the PB or MB group, the course of treatment with Multi-Drug Therapy (MDT) is modified. Rifampicin and dapsone are the recommended regimens for the treatment of PB type, whereas rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine are recommended for MB-type patients. To identify an efficient MDT treatment and stop the spread of the illness, a correct leprosy diagnosis must be made by both a physical examination and a laboratory analysis.

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